Was the Jerusalem “trampled”, in the time when Jesus Christ was on earth, according to Luke 21:24?

No, it wasn’t, for several reasons. The first important reason is that the first fulfillment of the prophecy of Daniel, Chapter 4, by the temporary removal of the king of Babylon, that didn’t mean that the city of Babylon was “trampled” at the same time as a world power. Similarly, the reversal, in 607 BC, of the Davidic dynasty didn’t mean that the city of Jerusalem wouldn’t be restored, after 70 years of devastation, in what it represented, the city of the "great King" (Daniel 9: 2; Matthew 5:35).

The second important reason, indeed, in 607 BC, the city of Jerusalem has been effectively “trampled” for 70 years, but then, the city and its temple have been rebuilt from 537 BCE, according to the prophecy of Daniel, Chapter 9: “You should know and understand that from the issuing of the word to restore and to rebuild Jerusalem until Mes·siʹah the Leader, there will be 7 weeks, also 62 weeks. She will be restored and rebuilt, with a public square and moat, but in times of distress” (Dan. 9:25). The reconstruction of the walls of Jerusalem has been ordered in 455 BCE, by Artaxerxes. And the books of Ezra and Nehemiah show how this reconstruction happened to the city and its temple and the religious and secular administration.

The third important reason that shows that the city of Jerusalem was not "trampled" at the time when Jesus Christ was on earth, is the fulfillment of the prophecy of Zechariah chapter 9, when Jesus entered into Jerusalem as king: “Be very joyful, O daughter of Zion. Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem. Look! Your king himself comes to you. He is righteous, yes, saved; humble, and riding upon an ass, even upon a full-grown animal the son of a she-ass” (Zechariah 9:9; Matthew 21:5). It is obvious that this prophecy was to be fulfilled in a Jerusalem that wouldn’t be "trampled".

How to understand what Jesus Christ said: “and Jerusalem will be trampled on by the nations, until the appointed times of the nations are fulfilled” (Luke 21:24)? The context of the prophecy of Jesus Christ, based on Luke 21: 20-24, was that he announced the future destruction of Jerusalem as fulfillment of the prophecy of Daniel 9:26b and 27b: “And the city and the holy place the people of a leader that is coming will bring to their ruin. And the end of it will be by the flood. And until [the] end there will be war; what is decided upon is desolations. (…) And upon the wing of disgusting things there will be the one causing desolation; and until an extermination, the very thing decided upon will go pouring out also upon the one lying desolate” (Daniel 26b and 27b).

Thus, as it is written in the prophecy of Daniel 9: 2 that Jerusalem would be "trampled" 70 years, and then rebuilt, in the framework of the prophecy of Daniel 9:26b, 27b, pronounced by Jesus Christ, this time, he suggested that the future (at that time) destruction of Jerusalem would “be trampled on by the nations, until the appointed times of the nations are fulfilled" (Luke 21:24).



“But you have approached a Mount Zion and a city of [the] living God, heavenly Jerusalem, and myriads of angels, 23 in general assembly, and the congregation of the firstborn who have been enrolled in the heavens, and God the Judge of all, and the spiritual lives of righteous ones who have been made perfect” (Hebrews 12:22,23).

“But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written: “Be glad, you barren woman who does not give birth; break into joyful shouting, you woman who does not have birth pains; for the children of the desolate woman are more numerous than those of her who has the husband.” (Galatians 4:26,27).

By comparing the two biblical quotations in Hebrews 12: 22.23 and Galatians 4: 26,27: there is no difference. The two biblical expressions, Heavenly Jerusalem and Jerusalem Above, represent God with Christ and those who are brought to reign with him together with the angelic people of God in heaven.

The "Jerusalem from above" or the "heavenly Jerusalem" represents the "woman" of Genesis 3:15: "And I will put enmity between you and the woman and between your offspring and her offspring. He will crush your head, and you will strike him in the heel" (Genesis 3:15).

The "Jerusalem from above" or the "heavenly Jerusalem" represents the "woman" who gives birth to a "child" in Revelation 12: "Then a great sign was seen in heaven: A woman was arrayed with the sun, and the moon was beneath her feet, and on her head was a crown of 12 stars, 2 and she was pregnant. And she was crying out in her pains and in her agony to give birth. (...) And she gave birth to a son, a male, who is to shepherd all the nations with an iron rod. And her child was snatched away to God and to his throne" (Revelation 12: 1-6). This child represents both Jesus Christ as enthroned heavenly King, but also the Kingdom of God, associated with the 144,000 mentioned in Revelation 7:3-8 and 14:1-5.

Given all of this biblical information, we understand that the "Jerusalem above" or the "heavenly Jerusalem" represents the heavenly family of God, associated with Him as His bride (Isaiah 54:1).

The New Jerusalem

"And I saw a new heaven and a new earth; for the former heaven and the former earth had passed away, and the sea is no more. I also saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God and prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. With that I heard a loud voice from the throne say: “Look! The tent of God is with mankind, and he will reside with them, and they will be his people. And God himself will be with them. And he will wipe out every tear from their eyes, and death will be no more, neither will mourning nor outcry nor pain be anymore. The former things have passed away" Revelation 21:1-5).

Obviously, the "New Jerusalem" is quite different to the "Jerusalem from above" and the "Heavenly Jerusalem". This time it the bride of the heavenly King Jesus Christ, that is, the 144,000 redeemed kings and priests of the earth (Revelation 5:10, 7: 3-8, 14: 1-5).

This "New Jerusalem" will come down to earth after the Great Tribulation, in the sense that humans will be anointed as princes and others as earthly priests. The Great Crowd that will survive, as a whole, will represent the Levites or Sons of Levi (Isaiah 32: 1,2 (Princes), Ezekiel 44: 3 (Chieftain), 40:46 (The sons of Zadok, the earthly priests); (Son of Levi)).