Was the Jerusalem “trampled”, in the time when Jesus Christ was on earth, according to Luke 21:24?

No, it wasn’t, for several reasons. The first important reason is that the first fulfillment of the prophecy of Daniel, Chapter 4, by the temporary removal of the king of Babylon, that didn’t mean that the city of Babylon was “trampled” at the same time as a world power. Similarly, the reversal, in 607 BC, of the Davidic dynasty didn’t mean that the city of Jerusalem wouldn’t be restored, after 70 years of devastation, in what it represented, the city of the "great King" (Daniel 9: 2; Matthew 5:35).

The second important reason, indeed, in 607 BC, the city of Jerusalem has been effectively “trampled” for 70 years, but then, the city and its temple have been rebuilt from 537 BCE, according to the prophecy of Daniel, Chapter 9: “You should know and understand that from the issuing of the word to restore and to rebuild Jerusalem until Mes·siʹah the Leader, there will be 7 weeks, also 62 weeks. She will be restored and rebuilt, with a public square and moat, but in times of distress” (Dan. 9:25). The reconstruction of the walls of Jerusalem has been ordered in 455 BCE, by Artaxerxes. And the books of Ezra and Nehemiah show how this reconstruction happened to the city and its temple and the religious and secular administration.

The third important reason that shows that the city of Jerusalem was not "trampled" at the time when Jesus Christ was on earth, is the fulfillment of the prophecy of Zechariah chapter 9, when Jesus entered into Jerusalem as king: “Be very joyful, O daughter of Zion. Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem. Look! Your king himself comes to you. He is righteous, yes, saved; humble, and riding upon an ass, even upon a full-grown animal the son of a she-ass” (Zechariah 9:9; Matthew 21:5). It is obvious that this prophecy was to be fulfilled in a Jerusalem that wouldn’t be "trampled".

How to understand what Jesus Christ said: “and Jerusalem will be trampled on by the nations, until the appointed times of the nations are fulfilled” (Luke 21:24)? The context of the prophecy of Jesus Christ, based on Luke 21: 20-24, was that he announced the future destruction of Jerusalem as fulfillment of the prophecy of Daniel 9:26b and 27b: “And the city and the holy place the people of a leader that is coming will bring to their ruin. And the end of it will be by the flood. And until [the] end there will be war; what is decided upon is desolations. (…) And upon the wing of disgusting things there will be the one causing desolation; and until an extermination, the very thing decided upon will go pouring out also upon the one lying desolate” (Daniel 26b and 27b).

Thus, as it is written in the prophecy of Daniel 9: 2 that Jerusalem would be "trampled" 70 years, and then rebuilt, in the framework of the prophecy of Daniel 9:26b, 27b, pronounced by Jesus Christ, this time, he suggested that the future (at that time) destruction of Jerusalem would “be trampled on by the nations, until the appointed times of the nations are fulfilled" (Luke 21:24).



“But you have approached a Mount Zion and a city of [the] living God, heavenly Jerusalem, and myriads of angels, 23 in general assembly, and the congregation of the firstborn who have been enrolled in the heavens, and God the Judge of all, and the spiritual lives of righteous ones who have been made perfect” (Hebrews 12:22,23).

“But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is our mother. 27 For it is written: “Be glad, you barren woman who does not give birth; break into joyful shouting, you woman who does not have birth pains; for the children of the desolate woman are more numerous than those of her who has the husband.” (Galatians 4:26,27).

By comparing the two biblical quotations in Hebrews 12: 22.23 and Galatians 4: 26,27: there is no difference. The two biblical expressions, Heavenly Jerusalem and Jerusalem Above, represent God with Christ and those who are brought to reign with him together with the angelic people of God in heaven.